What kind of car suspension do you know
Everyone should be familiar with car suspension. When we buy a car, we usually look at the configuration table, in which there are two columns: front / rear suspension type. There are many forms of automobile suspension.
Everyone should be familiar with car suspension. When we buy a car, we usually look at the configuration table, in which there are two columns: front / rear suspension type. There are many forms of automobile suspension. The more common ones in life are McPherson suspension, torsion beam suspension and multi link suspension. In addition to these, there are many other types of suspension. Today, let's take a look at how many suspension types there are.
Integral axle hard axle suspension (non independent suspension)
The integral axle suspension is that the left and right wheels are fixed on the same axle, and the left and right wheels and axle belong to the same whole. To put it bluntly, it is an iron rod strung two wheels. If you can't understand, you can refer to the shelf cars often used in rural areas. Integral axle suspension has the advantages of simple structure, solid and durable leather and strong bearing capacity. It is often used as truck suspension. It is also used by some hardline off-road vehicles, such as the rear axle of tank 300, the front and rear axles of Jeep Wrangler, the rear axle of BJ40 and so on.
The disadvantage is that when the vehicle is driving, the left and right wheels will interfere. After all, the two wheels belong to "grasshoppers on the same axis". The jumping of the left wheel will inevitably affect the right wheel. Therefore, when driving on the road, the comfort is general, which is not as good as the independent suspension.
Torsion beam suspension (semi independent suspension)
We often hear netizens spray "Scooter suspension", that is, torsion beam suspension. Strictly speaking, the torsion beam suspension is a semi independent suspension. Although the left and right wheels are connected through the bridge body, the key point is that this bridge body is not "hard". It can deform and produce torsion when the wheels jump. The advantage of this suspension is that it has simple structure, low cost, economical and convenient maintenance, and occupies less space during layout, so it leaves more space for the cockpit.
The disadvantage of torsion beam suspension is that its comfort is not as good as that of independent suspension, and its handling is not as good as that of independent suspension. At present, many popular cars are using independent suspension, such as Xuanyi, Langyi, xr-v, Binzhi and so on. In fact, on the paved road, the comfort performance of torsion beam suspension and independent suspension is not much worse. In terms of experience alone, there is no difference. In addition, the comfort of independent suspension is not necessarily better than that of torsion beam, because adjustment is also very important.
McPherson suspension (independent suspension)
McPherson suspension is one of the most widely used suspension forms at present, especially in the automobile market below 300000, the front McPherson independent suspension will be adopted almost. The suspension has simple structure and is mainly composed of coil spring, shock absorber and A-shaped lower swing arm. When the car is driving, the lower swing arm absorbs the lateral impact. McPherson suspension has the advantages of simple structure, light weight, fast response, small space occupation and good comfort.
The disadvantage is that because the upper swing arm is replaced by shock absorber and coil spring, the lateral stiffness is relatively small, the nodding phenomenon is obvious when braking, and the roll is large when turning.
Double wishbone suspension (independent suspension)
Literally, the double wishbone suspension has two wishbones up and down, also known as the double A-arm independent suspension. Different from the McPherson suspension, the lateral force of the double wishbone is absorbed by the upper and lower wishbones, so the lateral stability is more outstanding, and the roll is smaller when turning. In addition, the length of the upper and lower swing arms of the double wishbone suspension is different. The upper swing arm is shorter than the lower swing arm, so that the wheels can be better attached to the ground when jumping.
Its disadvantages are high manufacturing cost and complex setting of suspension positioning parameters. In addition, compared with the McPherson suspension, double wishbone suspension occupies more space. This suspension is generally used in medium and high-end models, such as BMW 5 series, Volvo S60 and so on.
Multi link suspension (independent suspension)
Multi link suspension, as the name suggests, is a suspension composed of multiple links (three or more). This kind of suspension is equivalent to replacing the two wishbones of the double wishbone with four connecting rods. Some will add one connecting rod to form a five connecting rod suspension, and the fifth connecting rod is used to adjust the wheel parameters. Due to the large number of connecting rods, the wheel and the ground can be kept vertical as much as possible, maintain sufficient ground area, and have excellent handling performance.
The disadvantages are complex structure, high cost, many parts and time-consuming assembly. In addition, there are many multi link suspension links, so more space is needed for chassis layout. This kind of suspension is generally used in medium and high-end models with high price, such as BMW 3 series, Audi A4L and so on.
Candle suspension (independent suspension)
When it comes to candle suspension, you may feel very strange. It's normal that there are few cars with this suspension on the market. Candle suspension is similar to McPherson suspension. However, candle suspension has no lower swing arm. Its kingpin is rigidly connected with the frame, and coil spring and shock absorber are installed on the kingpin. When the vehicle is driving, the wheel and kingpin sleeve move up and down along the axis direction.
The advantage of this kind of suspension is that when the suspension is deformed, the positioning angle of the kingpin will not change, and only the wheel base and wheelbase will change slightly. Therefore, it is conducive to the steering operation and driving stability of the vehicle. The disadvantage is that the comfort is poor, and the friction resistance between the sleeve and the kingpin is large and the wear is serious